- Sa: Shadaj – Sound of Peacock
- Re: Rishabh – Sound of bull
- Ga: Gandhar – Sound of goat
- Ma: Madhyam – Sound of horse
- Pa: Pancham – Sound of Cuckoo
- Dha: Dhaivat – Sound of donkey
- Ni: Nishad – Sound of elephant
- There are 7 shuddha swaras – Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni (in ascending order of pitch). There are 4 komal swaras (re, ga, dha, ni) and one tivra swara (ma). Thus a total of 12 swaras.
- A komal swara is half tone lower in pitch than its shuddha swara, and a tivra swara is half tone higher than its shuddha swara. So all 12 swaras in ascending order of pitch are: Sa, re, Re, ga, Ga, Ma, ma, Pa, dha, Dha, ni, Ni.
- We will represent shuddha swaras as capital letter, e.g. “Ga”, and komal and tivra swaras by lower letters, e.g. “ga” or “ma”.
- Lower octave swara e.g. dhaivat swara as: dha’; and the upper octave dhaivat as: dha”
Capital letters are shuddha swaras: Sa, Re, Ga , Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni
Small letters are komal or tivra swaras: Komal: re, ga, dha, ni; Tivra: ma
“ signifies taar saptak and ‘ signifies mandra saptak; else it is madhya saptak.
~ signifies alankar
re” => is a taar saptak komal rishabh
ma => is a madhya saptak tivra madhyam
Ni’ => is a mandra saptak shuddha nishad
dha’ => is mandra saptak komal dhaivat