Folder: musical study


RAGA

The word raga comes from the root ranj, in Sanskrit, meaning “to dye”, “to color”. So raga means a melody which colors or paints one’s mind. Through its combinations and movements of notes, a raga can evoke specific emotions in the minds of its listeners, through the medium of the artist performing the raga. Different ragas were designed to evoke different emotions. For example, raga Bhairavi evokes feelings of romance, longing and devotion, especifically in the spiritual sense. A good number of Prabhat Samgiita songs are composed in this raga – which is why our study on ragas started with it.

Here is an example of presentation of a piece in raga Bhairavi:

Ragas are based on certain rules for creating music. Some rules are common to Indian classical music in general while others are specific to a particular raga. For example, there is a general rule which says that in the scale of any raga one cannot skip or omit two successive notes. And as an example of rule specific to a raga, take raga Asawari, where in the ascending scale one must skip Ni and go directly from Dha to Sa”. (For reference on the notes, see Musical Notes.)

These rules are not meant to restrain creativity, but to add beauty to it – to make the music be aesthetically pleasing. And this is what happens in reality. One finds incredible liberty inside these rules. Professional musicians can improvise and create beautiful and deep, touching music for hours while staying all the time inside the same raga – flowing inside its patterns; it’s somewhat like dancing for hours in the same dance style while deeply enjoying it. The rules or characteristics of a raga give an identity to the melodic flow, and distinguish one raga from the others. In special, the rules determine which musical notes cannot be used in a raga, which can and how. In raga Bhairavi, for example, all 12 notes of the scale may be used. (See more On Raga Bhairavi.) Please see Raga Descriptions for other examples of rules on the use of notes in a number of ragas.

Because Indian classical music is an art form and has room for interpretation, not all raga characteristics are rigidly fixed; it may be possible to notice differences to other sources, and these differences may have a legitimate reason. If you would like to see a detailed and instructive discussion on this topic, please see Kirit’s article on Variation of forms and traditions in Indian classical music.

 

STUDY ON NOTES AND RAGA

So what can you do from here?

If you are still not familiar with the Indian musical notes and their notation used in this website, please check out the Musical Notes and Notation page.

On the practical side, to develop familiarity with the melodic aspect of music and progressively approach the study of ragas, we suggest listening to and practicing the so-called “exercises” of ragas. These exercises start with the scale of each raga (in the first line) and include characteristic movements (chalan) and characteristic musical patterns or phrases (pakad) of the raga, forming a musical panorama (swara vistara) of the raga. In other words, they present the identity of the raga in a condensed form. Knowing these exercises by heart will enable one to easily identify any musical piece in the same raga. We are sharing exercises of ragas Bhairavi and Darbari Kanada along with available audios.

Hearing, assimilating and practicing typical compositions in a raga is probably the best way to learn a raga. In the pages below you can hear reference compositions and PS songs composed in ragas Bhairavi and Darbari Kanada:

Many different ragas are seen in Prabhat Samgiita, but some seem to be more commonly found. See Raga Descriptions for a number of these – all of which are traditional or very traditional ragas. For each one of them, a list of basic characteristics is given.

From these common ragas, Bhairavi, Darbari Kanada and Desh are the ones which we studied more so far. So we have more material on them, which we share in their respective pages linked above.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Almost all the material and information shared in this section of Musical Study is gratefully credited to Kirit Dave, our leading instructor. We apologize for any mistakes that we may have unknowingly introduced. Your corrections and comments are welcome!


Links

We list here a few references for further studies on Hindustani Music.

 

Academic research:

MUSIC IN MOTION Project (Netherlands – India): http://autrimncpa.wordpress.com

Sangeet Research Academy – ITC: http://www.itcsra.org/sra_index/sra_index.asp (India)

 

About thaats and ornaments of Indian Classical Music:

(Detailed recordings are available in these pages below.)

http://www.itcsra.org/sra_raga/sra_raga_that/sra_raga_that_index.html (Thaats)

http://www.itcsra.org/alankar/alankar.html (Alankars)

 

Story and Chronology of Hindustani Music:

http://www.itcsra.org/sra_hcm/sra_hcm_index.asp

 

Musical and Cultural Glossary of India:

http://www.culturalindia.net/indian-music/music-glossary.html

 

 

 


TALA

Tala (or taal) means “rhythmic cycle”. In the Indian classical music, normally a rhythmic instrument like tabla or pakhawaj is used to accompany the music and keep a particular tala going on, while the singer or the player of a melodic instrument develops the melodic part of the musical piece.

Melody is not disconnected from the rhythm. In fact, in Indian classical music they are closely interconnected, and there are special points in the development of the music in which they meet in a very clear and pronounced way. These points are called sum (or sam). For this, musicians have to be well coordinated and each one has to be aware of what the other is doing. It means that a singer should have a good training in the rhythmic aspect; and the rhythmic accompanist should have a good understanding of the melodic aspect. In this way, together they can create a beautiful and unique musical presentation.  

There are many different talas in Indian classical music, and each one has its own name, as well as a definite number of beats or time units (called matras) which are played or marked in a specific way. For example, Dadra is a tala which has 6 matras. Below you can hear examples of Dadra played at different speeds (laya):

Dadra – madhya laya (90bpm): ouvir-dm

Dadra – drut laya (180bpm): ouvir-dd

The following talas are commonly found in Prabhat Samgiita: Dadra (6 matras), Rupak (7), Kaharva (8), Bhajan theka (which is a variation of Kaharva and also has 8 matras), and Teen Taal (16 beats). Below you can see some examples of how they sound like:

Rupak – madhya laya (90bpm): ouvir-rm

Kaharva – drut laya (150bpm): ouvir-kd

Teen Taal – vilambit laya (30bpm): ouvir-tv

Teen Taal – drut laya (180bpm): ouvir-td

In the most basic and simple form of a tala (called theka), each beat is marked by a specific stroke (or combination of strokes) of the instrument. Each stroke is named after the sound which it produces (that is, the name is formed onomatopoeically). The name of a stroke is generically called bol (meaning “word”). Taking again the example of Dadra, its bols are: dha, dhin, na, dha, tun, na. Variations in the basic bols do exist. So, both Kaharva and Bhajan theka have 8 beats but the way they are played is so significantly different that they were given different names.

Each tala is also subdivided in a definite way. For example, Dadra is subdivided in two sections with 3 matras each: 3 + 3 = 6. Each section (vibhag) is characterized by a emphasized beat (tali) or by a non-emphasized beat (khali). In the case of Dadra, the first section starts with tali and the second one with khali.

In the following link you can see a document presenting the basic characteristics of selected talas: click here to open (with option to download). These are talas which we have found in Prabhat Samgiita or in other compositions we have studied.

You can refer to the following educative webpage for more details, didactic explanations and illustrations (including audios and videos) of the main concepts related to tala: http://raag-hindustani.com/Rhythm.html. In particular, it has nice audiovisual examples of how tala and the lyrics of a song are coordinated.


Bhairavi

On Raga Bhairavi

by Kirit Dave’

 

Bhairavi is an ancient raga but it has slowly evolved into different variations. Original Bhairavi was called Komal Bhairavi and only used komal (flat) notes.

Sa re ga Ma Pa dha ni Sa”
Sa” ni dha Pa Ma ga re Sa

Shuddha rishabh (Re) was introduced next. Its arrival was so significant, that it was accepted not only in Thumari but also in Khayal and even in Dhrupad styles, which are very strict classical styles.

Examples:
Sa, dha’, ni’ Sa Re ga~ re Sa
Pa, dha Pa Ma Pa ga, ga Re ga Ma ga~ re Sa

Then shuddha dhaivat (Dha) was introduced.

Example:
ni’ Sa ga Ma Pa, ga Ma dha Pa, re ga Ma Pa Dha ni dha Pa

Tivra madhyam (ma) arrived after that:
Pa dha Pa Ma Pa ga, ga Ma ma Ma ga~ re Sa

Shuddha nishad (Ni) came after that. It is generally used in Thumari forms. Also it is prominent in Punjabi (North West India) style of singing and their folk music.

Sa, re Ni’ Sa, Ni’ Sa re Sa, Sa re Sa re Ni’ Sa, ni’ Sa re Sa re Sa dha’ Pa’, dha’ ni’ Sa re ga~ re Sa, re ni’ Sa

Shuddha gandhar (Ga) came the last. It is used very sparingly and is difficult to apply.
ni’ Sa ga Ma Ma Ga, Ma Ma Ga, Ma ga Ma ma Ma Ga, ga Ma re Sa

Original Bhairavi:
Purvang: ni’ Sa ga Ma, ga~ re Sa
Uttranga:

(i) ga Ma dha Pa, dha Pa Ma Pa ga Ma re Sa
(ii) ga Ma dha ni Sa”, re”, ni Sa” dha Pa
OR (iii) ga Ma Pa dha ni Sa”, re”, ni Sa” dha Pa

ga Ma dha ni Sa”, dha Pa Ma Pa ga Ma, Sa ga Ma Pa ga Ma re Sa

Three important pieces that will identify Bhairavi are:
ni’ Sa ga Ma re Sa
Pa, ga Ma dha Pa
ga Ma dha ni Sa”, ni Sa”~, dha Pa

Uttranga (second tetra chord) + Purvang (first tetra chord):
ga Ma dha ni Sa”, re”, ni Sa” dha Pa
ga Ma Pa dha ni Sa” re”, ni Sa”~ dha Pa

Sindhi Bhairavi:
In this very popular form of Bhairavi, there is a prominent use of shuddha nishad (Ni) and tivra madhyam (ma). It is well suited for Thumari in general, and used in Punjabi style of Thumari and folk music.

Bhairavi is an ancient raga, and so Bhairavi has been sung in all vocal styles of the past, from older to modern, Dhruvpad, Khayal, Thumari, Dadra, Tappa, Bhajan. Please see my article on Raga and Tala.

Nature of aesthetics is different in these Indian classical vocal styles. I have posted educational compositions of Bhairavi as it is sung in Dhruvapad, Khayal, Thumari, Dadra, Bhajan and Tappa styles. These compositions will give us better understanding of how Bhairavi was being sung in the past with older styles, as well as how it is sung today. Also, it will demonstrate the aesthetical differences among different vocal styles. The older Dhruvpad style is more serious, slower moving, with purist approach, less ornamental and rigid yet deeper in its effect. Thumari is a modern style. It is less rigid, more ornamental, faster moving, tolerates variants from norm, and leaves more room for abstract and creative use of notes, if it is done properly.

I want to acknowledge a great musicologist of India who passed away in January of 2010, Pandit Ramrang. The posted educational compositions are his creations. Pandit Ramrang contributed immensely to the studies of Indian classical music by his 5 volume work, called Abhinav Gitanjali on grammar of ragas.


Darbari Kanada

On Raga Darbari Kanada

By Kirit Dave’

 

Darbari Kanada, composed by the great Tansen sometime in the 15th or 16th centuries, is one of the most popular ragas. It is of very serious nature and has a complex descending scale. In ascent, all seven notes are used and in descent also, but only with a specific movement of notes. Therefore jaati of the raga is called “Shadav Vakra Sampurna”, meaning a “nonlinearly complete” raga. In descent, going from Sa” to ni directly is not allowed, but must progress by going through dha.

It is of the “Kanada Prakar” meaning the notes combination ga Ma re Sa is prominent and moving from ga to re must go through Ma. There are as many as 18 ragas that fall into this Prakar, such as Abhogi Kanada, Suha Kanada, Kafi Kanada, Nayaki Kanada etc. and all of them require ga Ma re Sa movement in that way.

In this raga, ga is almost always in the shadow of Ma, and dha is almost always in the shadow of ni. That is, singing of ga requires starting its pitch at Ma and then gradually lowering it to ga in the allocated time of the rhythm. Similarly, dha is treated in the shadow of ni.

This raga is of very serious nature and portrays viira (bravado) and devotional sentiments. It largely flows in the lower octave and is developed in a slower tempo. Unusual talas such as Jhumara are seen in the renditions of this raga because of its serious and deeper sentiments. The popularity of this raga is so extensive that although it is strictly classical in nature, light classical compositions in bhajans, popular movie songs, and even ghazals also utilize this raga.

 

Aaroha: Sa, Re, ga, Ma, Pa, dha, ni, Sa”

Avaroha: Sa” dha ni Pa, Ma Pa ni ga, Ma Re Sa ([1])

Pakad: Pa ni Ma Pa ni ga, ga Ma Re Sa, ni’ Sa Re dha’ ni’ Pa’, Ma’ Pa’ dha’ ni’ Re Sa.

Vaadi: Re

Samvaadi: Pa

Thaat: Aasawari

Time: midnight.

Jaati: Shadav Vakra Sampurna

Sentiment: Bravery, devotion, serious.

 

[1] Note: A variation of the avaroha of this raga is: Sa”, dha, ni, Pa, Ma, ga, Re, Sa.


Reference compositions

Composition References for Raga Bhairavi

The best way to appreciate and learn intricacies of the raga is to hear as many compositions as possible. Each composition has some specialty that the composer is trying to express. The selection below includes some of the best artists who are presenting genuine form of the style, raga and techniques. Please hear as many as you can, as well as search your own compositions!

 

VOCAL MUSIC

Dhrupad:

Senior Dagar Brothers – Aalap – part A

part B

 

Bhajan:

Lata Mangeshkar – “Mata Saraswati Sharada” (composer Ustad Allauddin Khan)

 

Pandit Bhimsen Joshi – “Jo bhaje hari ko sada” (in two parts)

 

Anup Jallota – “Bhaj man Ram charan sukhdai”

 

Thumri:

Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan

 

Ustad Fayaz Khan –

 

Pandit Bhimsen Joshi –

 

Ghulam Ali –

 

Film:

Ustad Muhammad Rafi Sahab – “Tu Ganga ki mauj” (from film Baiju Bawra)


Exercises

What we call raga “exercises” are its swara vistara, meaning “exposition of the notes”. It is to show the way the melody develops in the raga – including the characteristic movements and accentuation of the raga, called raga chalan.

This swara vistara of raga Darbari Kanada that we present here was kindly put together and given to us by Kirit Dave’. It reflects his research and knowledge on this raga. If you like to see more information on and the main characteristics of Darbari Kanada, kindly check Kirit’s article On Raga Darbari Kanada.

The exercises which follow are meant for vocal practice and can be accompanied by instruments. Their purpose is to demonstrate the characteristic phrases and movements of the raga and thereby to help students to assimilate the identity of the raga. Besides this, and for the same purpose, it’s also recommended for one to learn many compositions in that raga.

The exercises should be practiced by hearing them directly from an instructor or also indirectly through an audio recordings. Below we share an available audio, which covers part of exercises. The written notes are a simplified version of the raga being sung; they are meant for reference and to help in the learning, not to present all the details.

 

Notation:

For notation of the notes, please see Notes and Notation.

 

 

Swara Vistara of Raga Darbari Kanada:

1.

Sa   Re   ga,   Ma   Pa   dha,   ni,   Sa”,   Sa”   dha,   ni,   Pa,   Pa   ni   Ma   Pa   ni   ga,   ga   ga   Ma   Re   Sa,    Sa,   dha’   ni’   Pa’,   Ma’   Pa’   dha’,   ni’   Re   Sa.

2.

Ma   Pa   dha,   ni   Pa,   Ma   Pa   dha   ni   ni   Sa”,   ni   Sa”,   ni   Sa”   Re”   dha,   ni   Pa,   Pa   Re”,   Re”   Sa”,   Re”   Sa”,   Re”   Sa”,   Re”   Pa”   ga”,   ga”   ga”   Ma”   Re”   Sa”,   Re”   ni   Sa”   Re”   dha   ni   Pa,   Pa   ni   Ma   Pa   ni   ga,   ga   ga   Ma   Re   Sa.

3.

Audio available for number 3: Link

S,  S,  n’  S,  n’  S  R,  n’  S,  n‘  S  R  S,  n’  S  R  d’  n’  S,  S  d’  n’  S,  S  R  S,  n’  S  d’  n’  R  S,  n’  S  n’  S  n’  S  R  d’,  n’  R  S,

d’  n’  S,  M’  P’  d’  n’  P’,  M’  P’  d’  n’  S,  n’  S  R  S,  n’  S  R  g,  g  g  M  R  S,  n’  S  R  d’  n’  S,  S  R  g  M  R  S,  n’  S  R  d’  n’  P’,  M’  P’  d’  n’  R  S,  S  R  g  M  P,  M  P  g  M  R  S,  S  R  g  M  P,  M  P  g  M  R  S,  n’  S  n’  S  R  d’  n’  R  S,  S  R  g  M  P,  M  P  d  n  P,  M  P  g  M  R  S,  M  P  d  n  P,  M  P  d  n  n  S”,  M  P  d  n  n  S”,  S”  d  n  P,  M  P  g  R  S  R  S,  d’  n’  R  S,  n’  S  R  d’  n’  R  S,

S  R  g  M  P,  M  P  d  d  n  P,  M  P  d  n  S”,  n  S”n  S”  R”  d  n  P,

M  P  d  d  n  P,  M  P  d  d  d  d  n  P,  M  P  d  d  d  d  d  d  n  P,  M  P  d  n  n  S”,  n  S”n  S”R”d  n  P,  P  n  M  P  n  g,  g  g  M  R  S,  n’  S  R  d’  n’  R  S,

M  P  d  n  S”,  n  S”  n  S”,  M  P  d  n  S”,  n  S”n  S”  n  S”  R”d  n  P,  P  R”,  P  R”,  R”  S”  R”  S”  R”  S”  R”  P”  g”,  g”  g”  M”  R”  S”,

M  P  d  d  n  P,  M  P  d  n  n  S”,  n  S”n  S”  n  S”  n  S”  R”  d  n  P,  P  R”,  P  R”,  R”  S”  R”  S”  R”  S”  R”  S”  R”  P”  g”,  g”  g”  M”  R”  S”,  R”  n  S”  R”  d  n  P,  R”  n  S”  R”  d  n  P,  M  P  n  g,  g  g  M  R  S,  n’  S  R  d’  n’  R  S,  d’  n’  S,  n’  S  R  g  g  M  R  S,

S  R  g  M  P  d  n  S”,  S”  d  n  P  M  P  n  g  M  R  S,

R  S  d’  n’  R  S,  R  S  d’  n’  R  S.

 


Exercises

What we call raga “exercises” are its swara vistara, meaning “exposition of the notes”. It is to show the way the melody develops in the raga – including the characteristic movements and accentuation of the raga, called raga chalan.

This swara vistara of raga Bhairavi was kindly put together and given to us by Kirit Dave’. It reflects his research and knowledge on Bhairavi, particularly on the historical development of this raga – as can be seen in his article On Raga Bhairavi.

The exercises which follow are meant for vocal practice and can be accompanied by instruments. Their purpose is to demonstrate the characteristic phrases and movements of the raga and thereby to help students to assimilate the identity of the raga. Besides this, and for the same purpose, it’s also recommended for one to learn many compositions in that raga.

The exercises should be practiced by hearing the audio recordings below. The written notes are a simplified version of the raga being sung; they are meant for reference and to help in the learning, not to give all the details; in some points a symbol (~ or –) was added to represent some detail.

 

Notation:

For notation of the notes, please see Notes and Notation.

~ means an unspecified ornament (e.g. an andolan or meend)

after a note means that the note should be prolonged

 

 

Swara Vistara of Raga Bhairavi:

Slow tempo:

1. Sa, re, ga, Ma, Pa, dha, ni, Sa”, Sa”, ni, dha, Pa, Ma, ga, re, Sa.

1

2. Sa, Sa re ga~ re Sa, re ni’ dha’ ni’ Sa, Pa’ dha’ ni’ Sa ga~ re Sa, Sa re ga Ma, ga~ re Sa, dha’ ni’ Sa ga~ re Sa, dha’ ni’ Sa re ga Ma – ga Ma~ re Sa

2

3. ni’ Sa ga Ma Pa, dha Pa, Ma Pa ga Ma dha Pa, Sa ga Ma Pa ga Ma re Sa, dha’ ni’ Sa ga~ re Sa, ni’ Sa ga Ma dha Pa, ga Ma re Sa

3

4. ni’ Sa ga Ma dha Pa, ga Ma ni dha Pa, Ma Pa ga Ma, Sa ga Ma Pa ga Ma re Sa, dha’ ni’ Sa ga~ re Sa.

4

5. ga Ma dha ni Sa”, ni Sa” ni Sa” ni Sa” re” Sa” ni Sa” dha Pa, Pa dha Ma Pa ga~ Ma, Sa ga Ma Pa ga Ma re Sa, dha’ ni’ Sa ga~ re Sa.

5

6. ga Ma dha ni Sa” ga” re” Sa”, Sa” Re” Sa” Re”ga” Re” Sa”, ni Sa” ni Sa” re” Sa” ni Sa” dha Pa, Pa Sa” Sa” re” Sa” ni Sa” dha Pa, Pa dha Ma Pa ga~ Ma, Sa ga Ma Pa ga Ma re Sa, dha’ ni’ Sa Re ga~ re Sa.

6

7. ni’ Sa ga Ma Pa, Pa ni Dha ni Pa dha Pa, Pa Dha ni Sa” Dha ni~ dha Pa, Pa dha Ma Pa ga~, Sa ga Sa ga Ma ma Ma ga~ re Sa, dha’ ni’ Sa ga Re ga Sa re Sa.

7

8. Sa re ga Pa, Sa re ga Pa ni dha Pa, Pa dha Ma Pa ga~, Re ga Ma ma Ma ga~ re Sa, dha’ ni’ Sa ga~ re Sa.

8

9. Pa dha Ni Sa”, Ni Sa”~ dha Pa, Pa dha Ni Sa” Re” Ni Sa~ dha Pa, Dha – –  ni Sa” dha Pa, Ma Dha ni Sa”~ dha Pa, Pa dha Ma Pa ga~, Sa ga Ma Pa ga Ma re Sa, dha’ ni’ Sa ga~ re Sa.

9

 

Following recording shows Kirit with students doing demonstration and practice of combining and improvising upon different phrases taken from various lines above (slow tempo) and below (faster tempo) to form a singular movement or flow of the notes of the raga:

Gravação contínua

(At the end Kirit also gives a quick but important hint on the practice of the exercises and of music in general.)

 

Faster tempo:

10. Sa dha Pa dha Ma Pa ga Ma Pa ni dha Pa ga Ma re Sa, dha’ ni’ Sa ga Re ga Sa re Sa.

11. ga Ma dha ni Sa” ga” re” Sa” – -, Sa” re” ni Sa” re”, ni Sa” dha ni Pa, Pa ni dha Pa, Ma dha Pa Ma, ga Pa Ma, Re Ma ga, Sa re Sa, Sa dha Pa dha Ma Pa ga Ma Pa – – -.

12. ni’ Sa ga Ma Pa dha Pa Ma, ga Ma Pa ni dha Pa – -, Pa ga” re” ga” Sa” re” ni Sa” – -, Pa dha ni Sa” ga”~ re” Sa” – -, Sa” re”, ni ”s”, dha ni, Pa dha, Ma Pa, ga Ma ga, Sa ga Ma Pa ga Ma re Sa, Sa ga Ma Pa ga Ma re Sa, Sa ga Ma Pa ga Ma re – – Sa.


Reference compositions

Composition References for Raga Darbari Kanada

The best way to appreciate and learn intricacies of the raga is to hear as many compositions as possible. Each composition has some specialty that the composer is trying to express. The selection below includes some of the best artists who are presenting genuine form of the style, raga and techniques. Please hear as many as you can, as well as search your own compositions!

 

VOCAL MUSIC

 

Bhajan:

Pandit Jasraj – “Maam avalokaya pankaj lochan”

Jasraj

Click to open in Youtube

 

Pandit Jasraj – “Chidanand Roopah” – in 3 parts


 

Ghazal:

Mehadi Hassan – “Ku baku phail gai baat”

Mehadi Hassan

 

Khayal:

Ustad Fateh Ali Khan, Amjad Amanat Ali Khan

Fateh Ali Khan, Amjad Ali Khan

 

Ustad Fateh Ali Khan

Ustad Bade Gulam Ali Khan

Ustad Rashid Khan

 

Pandit D. V. Paluskar

 

Dhruvpad:

Ustad Wassifuddin Dagar

 

Film:

Ustad Amir Khan (film “Baiju Bawra”)

 

INSTRUMENTAL:

Ustad Amjad Ali Khan – Sarod

 

Shahid Parvez – Sitar

 

Vasant Rai – fretless guitar


Raga Descriptions

This page lists the main characteristics of a number of selected ragas found in Prabhat Samgiita.

Kirit is teaching us these ragas, especially in our intensive trainings. If you like, you can access the page of each of these events and access the booklets used, including materials and Prabhat Samgiita songs studied in each of these ragas.

Click on the year to go to the page of the event:

  • 2011: intensive training on raga Bhairavi
  • 2012: intensive training on ragas Darbari Kanada and Desh
  • 2013: intensive training on ragas Bhairavi, Darbari Kanada and Yaman
  • 2014: intensive training on raga Bhairavi
  • 2015: intensive training on ragas Bhairavi and Desh
  • 2016: intensive training on ragas Bhairavi, Desh and Darbari Kanada

The information contained below is of a somewhat technical nature. Please refer to the Glossary about the terminology used here.

 

  1. Raga Darbari Kanada:

Aaroha: Sa, Re, ga. Ma, Pa, dha, ni, Sa”

Avaroha: Sa”, dha, ni, Pa, Ma, Pa, ni, ga, Ma, Re Sa

Vadi: Re

Samvadi: Pa

Jati: Vakra sampurna

Pakad: Pa ni Ma Pa ni ga, ga Ma Re Sa, Re ni’ Sa Re dha’, ni’ Re Sa

Thaat: Asawari

Rasa: Devotion, Seriousness

Time: Midnight

Notes: ni is vakra in avaroha; Pa ni ga meend. ga Ma Re Sa pattern used because it is kanada type, and helps differentiate from Asawari raga. ga is sung with andolan from Ma, and dha is sung with andolan from ni.

 

2. Raga Bhairavi:

Aaroha: Sa, re, ga, Ma, Pa, dha, ni Sa”

Avaroha: Sa”, ni, dha, Pa, Ma, ga, re, Sa

Vadi: Pa or Ma

Samvadi: Sa

Pakad: Sa, re ga Ma, ga re Sa dha’ ni’ Sa

Thaat: Bhairavi

Rasa: Romantic, yearning, devotion

Jati: Sampurna

Time: Morning

Note: Bhairavi allows all 12 notes if used properly. Suited for Bhajan, thumari and light music

 

3. Raga Bageshri:

Aaroha: Sa, ga, Ma, Dha, ni, Sa”

Avaroha: Sa”, ni, Dha, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ma, ga, Re, Sa

Vaadi: Ma

Samvadi: Sa

Pakad: Dha’ ni’ Sa Ma Dha ni Dha, Ma ga Re Sa

Thaat: Kafi

Jati: Odav-Sampurna

Time: late night

Note: Pancham used very very scarcely and in avaroha only.

 

4. Raga Asawari:

It has two forms; Asawari (refers to Shuddha Re Asawari) uses shuddha Re, and Komal Rishabh Asawari uses “re”.

Aaroha: Sa, Re, Ma, Pa, dha, Sa”

Avaroha: Sa” ni dha Pa, Ma Pa dha Ma Pa ga, Re Sa

Vaadi: dha

Samvadi: ga

Pakad: Ma Pa dha Ma Pa ga Re Sa

Thaat: Asawari

Rasa: Devotion

Jati: Odav-Sampurna

Time: Morning second prahar

Note: Must go straight from dha to Sa; intermediate effect of ni will feel like raga Jaunpuri.

 

5. Raga Yaman

Aaroha: Ni’ Re Ga ma Pa Dha Ni Sa”

Avaroha: Sa” Ni Dha Pa ma Ga Re Sa

Vaadi: Ga

Samvadi Ni

Pakad: Ni’ Re Ga, ma Ga, Pa ma Ga, ma, Re, Ni’ Re Sa

Thaat: Kalyan

Rasa: Peace

Jati: Sampurna

Time: Night first prahar

 

6. Raga Desh

Aaroha: Sa, Re, Ma, Pa, Ni, Sa”

Avaroha: Sa”, ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Re, Ga, Sa

Vaadi: Re

Samvaadi: Pa

Pakad: Re Ma Pa Ni Dha Pa, Ma Ga Re, ni’ Sa

That: Khamaj

Rasa: Romantic, light and seasonal compositions

Jati: Odav-Sampurna

Time: Night, Second prahar